“His vision is to found, slowly and quietly, a ‘London School of Economics and Political Science’ – a centre not only of lectures on special subjects, but an association of students who would be directed and supported in doing original work.” Beatrice Webb diary, 21 September 1894
LSE first opened its doors in 1895 in three rooms in 9 John Adam Street, close to the Strand, London. By October 1895, 200 students had enrolled for courses and in 1896 the School moved to larger premises at 10 Adelphi Terrace.
LSE was the brain child of Sidney Webb (1859-1947) supported by his wife, the social investigator Beatrice Webb (1858-1943), the political scientist Graham Wallas (1858-1932) and the writer G Bernard Shaw (1856-1950). All four were members of the Fabian Society. An economic historian, William Hewins (1865-1931) was appointed the first Director.
“The special aim of the School will be, from the first, the study and investigation of the concrete facts of industrial life and the actual working of economic and political relations as they exist or have existed, in the United Kingdom and in foreign countries.” LSE Prospectus, 1895
From the start, the School was open to men and women and welcomed students from overseas. The School was committed to providing its students with “scientific training in methods of investigation and research” and resources for research, and in 1896 it founded the Library, known from 1928 as the British Library of Political and Economic Science.
The first prospectus lists the subjects taught as economics, statistics, commerce, commercial geography, commercial history, commercial and industrial law, currency and banking, taxation and finance, and political science.
In 1900 the School joined the reformed University of London, becoming the University’s Faculty of Economics. University of London degrees were first conferred on LSE students in 1902.
As the School grew, improved accommodation was a high priority, and in 1900 the Bishop of London unveiled the foundation stone of the School’s first building on Clare Market, Passmore Edwards Hall.
The Hall was built on land granted to the School by London County Council with funding from the philanthropist John Passmore Edwards (1823-1911).
In 1919 William Beveridge (1879-1963) was appointed Director initiating a period of rapid intellectual and physical development for the School.
In 1920 King George V laid the foundation stone by the main entrance on Houghton Street and in 1938 work was completed on a new building on the east side of Houghton Street.
The intellectual expansion of the School was supported by funding from the Rockefeller Foundation. In 1931 in a speech to students, Beveridge declared:
“Our scope is best defined as a study of man in society.” Beveridge/5/10/16
In 1933, William Beveridge founded the Academic Assistance Council (from 1936 the Society for the Protection of Science and Learning) after hearing of the dismissal of senior German professors while travelling in Austria. Appointments at LSE were supported by voluntary donations from staff.
During the Second World War, LSE, under its Director Sir Alexander Carr-Saunders (1886-1966), was evacuated to Cambridge where it was hosted by Peterhouse College. The School continued to teach across the social sciences and courses were opened to Cambridge students. Student numbers fell and for the first time women outnumbered men among the student body.
46 members of staff entered war service beginning with the School Secretary, Walter Adams, who worked for the Special Operations Executive and then became Deputy Head of the British Political Warfare Mission in Washington.
At the Economic Section of the Offices of the War Cabinet, Lionel Robbins became Director in 1940 and played a major role at the 1944 Bretton Woods Conference. The Beveridge Report, published in 1942, became the basis of the post-war Labour government’s legislation programme for social reform.
As its 50th anniversary approached in August 1945, LSE returned to London and re-opened on Houghton Street on 29 October 1945.
The 1950s and 1960s were a period of consolidation and change for the School. Richard Titmuss (1907-1973) was appointed to the Chair of Social Administration in 1950 leading the development of the Department of Social Policy.
The psychologist, Hilda Himmelweit (1918-1989), joined the School in 1949 and established the Department of Social Psychology in 1964.
In 1954, LSE sociologists produced the Nuffield-sponsored report on Social Mobility in Britain, the product of a five-year study that established the study of social stratification for the next 20 years.
Sir Walter Adams (1906-1975), the principal of University College of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, was appointed Director in 1967. The appointment was opposed by the Students’ Union and led to a period of unrest culminating in numerous sit-ins and the closure of the School after the School authorities installed security gates. These actions secured student representation on School committees.
Four Nobel Prizes in the Economic Sciences were awarded to economists with LSE connections during the 1970s: John Hicks (1904-1989) in 1972, Friedrich Hayek (1899-1992) in 1974, James Meade (1907-1995) in 1977 and Sir Arthur Lewis (1915-1991) in 1979.
In 1978 the Library moved into the former headquarters of WHSmith, now renamed the Lionel Robbins Building. The Library Appeal raised over £2 million and for the first time staff and students had direct access to the Library’s extensive collection of books and journals.
In 1986 the University Grants Committee judged the majority of LSE’s research “outstanding” and the Director, I.G. Patel (1924-2005), commented: “Our outstanding position in research at the frontiers of the economic and social sciences in this country (and abroad) has been recognised.”
This was confirmed in the 1989 Universities Funding Council Research Assessment Exercise when LSE scored 93 out of 100 marks.